By Carol Lansing, Edward D. English
Drawing at the services of 26 wonderful students, this crucial quantity covers the foremost concerns within the examine of medieval Europe, highlighting the numerous influence the period of time had on cultural varieties and associations crucial to eu id
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Extra resources for A Companion to the Medieval World (Blackwell Companions to European History)
And trans. Colgrave and Mynors, pp. 142–3. 2, ed. and trans. 9. Gregory of Tours, Histories, X:4, ed. Krusch and Levison; English translation by Thorpe. 2, ed. a. 859. The pioneering works were Bloch, Feudal Society (the French original dates from 1939–40), and Duby, La Société aux XIe et XIIe siècles; see also Bisson, “La Terre et les hommes. Bibliography Ambrosiani, Bjorn, and Clarke, Helen, Towns in the Viking Age, 2nd edn (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1995). Ausonius, Ausonius: Works, trans.
This ancient economy, fundamentally structured by the Roman state, was replaced by new systems of transcultural trade. While early medieval trade networks catered for the demands of ruling elites and relied on royal protection, they were not so closely tied to the structures of the state as their predecessors. The chronology of their emergence differed, region by region. Around the North Sea, specialized emporia begin to develop in the later part of the seventh century and into the eighth. While some of these related to Roman sites – at London, for example, an “emporium of many nations”7 stood just outside the gate of the former Roman city on the Strand – more were new foundations on low-lying and easily navigable sites, such as Dorestad in the Rhine delta and Hamwic near modern Southampton on the south English coast, and, by 800, Hedeby in Denmark and Birka in Sweden.
But it was only extreme forms of peasant self-help that could be presented as potentially subversive: the right of free men to bear weapons was unquestioned. It was not until the end of our period, with the emergence of a new ideology of knighthood creating an identity rooted in ecclesiastically sanctioned violence for a broad-based elite in the tenth and eleventh centuries, that the automatic identiﬁcation of free status with weapon bearing was broken. Even then practice lagged well behind theory.
A Companion to the Medieval World (Blackwell Companions to European History) by Carol Lansing, Edward D. English