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New PDF release: A history of the Baltic States

By A. Kasekamp

ISBN-10: 0230019412

ISBN-13: 9780230019416

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were the battleground for neighbouring powers and the location of severe competition, but in addition interplay, among East and West. A historical past of the Baltic States masterfully lines the improvement of those 3 Baltic international locations, from the northern crusades opposed to Europe's final pagans, and Lithuania's upward thrust to turn into one in every of medieval Europe's largest
states, to their incorporation into the Russian Empire and the production in their glossy nationwide identities.

Drawing upon the latest scholarship, Andres Kasekamp will pay specific awareness to the tumultuous 20th century, in which the Baltic States accomplished independence, but in addition continued career via either the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. eventually, he explores how the Baltic States recovered their statehood and remodeled themselves into individuals of the eu Union. basically and accessibly written, this can be one of many first English-language books to supply a comparative survey of Baltic background.

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The Teutonic Knights, however, went into battle without the support of their Livonian branch, who honoured their earlier truce with Lithuania. 9 The elite of the Knights, including Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen, fell in battle. Vytautas and Jogaila followed up their great victory by besieging the imposing headquarters of the order at Marienburg. However, they had no siege engines and their noble levy returned home to their estates, enabling the order to recover from the brink of total defeat.

In the internal Livonian power struggle, the order scored a great victory in 1397 when Pope Boniface IX supported its position that even the Archbishop of the Riga must be a member of the order. The order’s triumph, however, was short-lived as the Archbishop of Riga per­ suaded Pope Martin V to rescind the Bull in 1426. Nevertheless, the order persisted and convinced Pope Nicholas V to reissue the Bull in 1452. Although formally the order triumphed in the end, the power struggle (which even involved armed conflict) continued, since the cathedral chap­ ter rejected the order’s attempt to impose its authority over it, and the city of Riga continued to resist the order’s designs for hegemony in Livonia.

The Dominicans, how­ ever, soon became the dominant monastic order. The Franciscans also established themselves in Livonia in the fifteenth century. By the start of the Reformation there were about thirty monasteries in Livonia. The order was the strongest military force and greatest landholder in Livonia, with its headquarters originally in Riga but later in Wenden (Cesis) near the centre of Livonia. During the course of the fifteenth cen­ tury the Livonian brethren gradually managed to emancipate themselves from the Teutonic Order in Prussia.

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A history of the Baltic States by A. Kasekamp

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