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DDT, in particular, has been studied more than any other pesticide (Fig. 10, Table 3). It has been implicated as detrimental to numerous wildlife species and to accumulate in the food chain [171]. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons have been detected in various marine and terrestrial organisms, food crops, surface waters, and soils. Toxaphene, Lindane, Chlordane, and Heptachlor (Fig. 10, Table 3) have been found in the biosphere in much smaller levels than DDT, Aldrin, and Dieldrin [153, 172]. The DDT content of phytoplankton in the sea has been shown to increase since 1955 even though the amount used has been declining since 1965 [153].

These compounds are made worldwide in the course of many industrial processes, as for example in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, drugs, and antioxidants, and in the pulp and paper industry. Organophosphorus and chlorinated phenoxyacids also yield chlorinated and nitrophenols as major degradation products. 4-Nitrophenol was reported as a breakdown product after the hydrolysis and photolysis of Parathion in water and chlorinated phenols are formed by the hydrolysis and photolysis of chlorinated phenoxyacid herbicides [251–253].

They found that 20% SF6 in CO2 was more effective at 375 bar, and 50 °C for 30 min than each pure fluid for removing both PAHs and alkanes. McNally and Wheeler [393, 394] applied SFE to the analysis of sulfonylurea herbicides and their metabolites in soil-solids. Engelhardt and Gross [395] analyzed Aldrin, Lindane, and 4,4¢-DDT in spiked soil samples using SFE followed by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Lopez-Avila et al. [396] used SFE to extract a series of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides from sand using CO2 and CO2 modified with acetone.

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Adsorption From Aqueous Solution by Gould R.F. (ed.)


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